Intel 4004 - The World's First Microprocessor - C4004, D4004, P4004 and a 4004 Chip Die - NOS, Working
About this artwork
This artwork is a mixed media display featuring the Intel 4004. This artwork contains all three of the 4004 package types, and an extremely rare 4004 chip die. The P4004 was made in the Philippines in the 45th week of 1976. The D4004 was made in Malaysia in the 1st week of 1981. The C4004 has no date code or manufacture location. This would indicate it was a very early version and made in Mexico. All three chips have been tested and are working fine. I will only be able to make a couple of these artworks with all three chips and a 4004 die.
About the 4004
Introduced November 11th, 1971, the Intel 4004 was the world’s first microprocessor. Although created for a calculator, the 4004 was the first semiconductor device that provided, on a single chip, the functions of a general-purpose computer. Intel created the 4004 with Ted Hoff and Federico Faggin as the lead designers with Stan Mazor and Masatoshi Shima as co-contributors. The 4-bit 4004 was very limited by modern standards. Initially conceived as a way to cut costs, the Intel 4004 was the beginning of a new era of complex intelligent electronic devices.
About the 4004 Packages
Intel 4004 computer chips are created on silicon wafers and then cut up or diced into individual chips. The 4004 chip was 1/8th inch wide by 1/6th inch long. This small microprocessor had more computing power than the first electronic computer, the ENIAC, which occupied 3,000 cubic feet and weighed 30 tons. Before chips can be used, they must be placed in a protective package. These packages had leads that connected the 4004 to the circuit board. The 4004 came in three different packages referred to C, D, P.
The C4004 was made with a gold cap/lid, gold leads, and a white ceramic body. The chip die was placed in the center cavity. Tiny gold interconnects wires were used to connect the pads on the chip to the inside edges of the leads. The cavity was sealed with the gold cap. This package was the most reliable and durable of the three and the most expensive. At the time the 4004 was conceived, Intel was a memory company, not a microprocessor company; lots of things changed over time. The company that made the white ceramic for the C package was Coors, more widely known for its beer. The D4004 was made with two ceramic slabs, a lead frame, and a ceramic slurry in the middle. This ceramic version of the 4004 came after the C4004, but still had similar reliability and durability, but was less expensive. The P4004 was a black plastic polyresin version. The 4004 chip was mounted on the lead frame and connected with the interconnect wires. This assembly was placed in an injection molder where it was enveloped with the polyresin. These chips were much less expensive to make but did not have the reliability and durability of the ceramic versions. The P versions, while rare, are the most common versions found today, the Ds less common, and Cs very rare.
The 4004 provided the basic building blocks that are still found in today's microcomputers: the arithmetic and logic unit and the control unit. The 4-bit Intel 4004 ran at a clock speed of 108 kHz and contained 2300 transistors. It processed data in 4 bits, but its instructions were 8 bits long. The 4004 addressed up to 1,024 bits of program memory and up to 4,096 bits of data memory. It had sixteen 4-bit (or eight 8-bit) general-purpose registers, and an instruction set containing 46 instructions.
The artwork is framed in an 11"x14" black shadow box frame, with glass. All framing materials are acid-free. A narrative about the artwork that includes the artist’s signature is placed on the back of the artwork.