Three Generations of Computing Technology - Vacuum tubes, Transistors, Computer chips


Availability: 1 in stock

About this Artwork

General-purpose computers started in the 1950s using vacuum tubes for electronic switches. These replaced the special purpose relay-based calculators that preceded them. In the 1960s they transitioned to transistors with a major increase in reliability and speed, lowered cost. The 1970s and beyond have been dominated by integrated circuit silicon chips. The density of transistors on these chips went from single digits to the billions in the 21st century, roughly doubling every 2 years.

Here are artifacts used in this artwork:

Section A:  1st Generation - Vacuum Tubes

1, 2, 3  IBM Computer Vacuum Tubes 

Section B:  2nd Generation - Transistors

  1. General Electric 2N107
  2. Sylvania 2N385
  3. Philco 2N223
  4. Western Electric (Bell Labs) 2N559
  5. Lockheed Avionics 2N1152

Section C:  3rd Generation - Integrated Circuits

  1. AMI 2063 Serial Communication Chip
  2. Mostek 5002 4-Digit Counter/Display Decoder
  3. Motorola 356 ECL 3-Input OR/NOR
  4. National Semiconductor 945 Flip-Flop
  5. Intel 8752 Microcontroller with EPROM
  6. Motorola 68000 16-bit Microprocessor


The artwork is 9"x20" in a black shadow box frame, with glass. All framing materials are acid-free. A narrative about the artwork that includes the artist’s signature is placed on the back of the artwork.

Please note:  The look of the artifacts in the artworks may vary, each piece is unique.